Lecture in The Laws of Thermodynamics | Giancoli Physics

(Last Updated On: March 21, 2020)
The Laws of Thermodynamics

Lesson Objectives – the students should be able to:

  • Explain what is meant by a physical system and distinguish between an open system and a closed system.
  • State the first law of thermodynamics and use this law to solve problems.
  • Distinguish between an isothermal process, isobaric process, isochoric process and adiabatic process and draw a PV diagram for each process.
  • Calculate the work done by a gas from a PV diagram. Use the equations for an ideal gas and for the internal energy of a gas to calculate the change in internal energy of a gas and the heat added or removed during a thermodynamic process.
  • Calculate the amount of heat which must be added or removed to change the temperature of a gas held in a closed container under conditions of constant volume or constant pressure.
  • Write from memory and explain the meaning of three equivalent ways of stating the second law of thermodynamics.
  • Use the first and second laws of thermodynamics to solve problems involving a Carnot engine.
  • Distinguish between a reversible process and an irreversible process. Give examples of each type of process.
  • Determine the change in entropy for a system in which the thermodynamic process is either reversible or irreversible.
  • Distinguish between macrostate and microstate and solve problems involving the statistical interpretation of entropy.

Lecture on The Laws of Thermodynamics PPT

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Summary of Chapter 15

  • First law of thermodynamics:
    First law of thermodynamics Formula
  • Isothermal process: temperature is constant.
  • Adiabatic process: no heat is exchanged.
  • Work done by gas at constant pressure:
    Work done by gas Formula
  • Heat engine changes heat into useful work; needs temperature difference.
  • Efficiency of a heat engine:
    Efficiency of a heat engine Formula
  • Upper limit on efficiency:
    Upper limit on efficiency Formula
  • Refrigerators and air conditioners do work to extract heat from a cooler region and send it to a warmer region:
    Refrigerators and air conditioners do work
  • A heat pump is similar:
    heat pump Formula
  • Second law of thermodynamics:
    • heat flows spontaneously from a hot object to a cold one, but not the reverse
    • a given amount of heat cannot be changed entirely to work
    • natural processes tend to increase entropy.
  • Change in entropy:
    Change in entropy Formula
  • Entropy is a measure of disorder.
  • As time goes on, less and less energy is available to do useful work.

Units of Chapter 15 – Keywords

  • The First Law of Thermodynamics
  • Thermodynamic Processes and the First Law
  • Human Metabolism and the First Law
  • The Second Law of Thermodynamics – Introduction
  • Heat Engines
  • Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps
  • Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
  • Order to Disorder
  • Unavailability of Energy; Heat Death
  • Evolution and Growth; “Time’s Arrow”
  • Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law
  • Thermal Pollution and Global Warming

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credit: Giancoli Physics©2013

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