Lecture in The Laws of Thermodynamics | Giancoli Physics

(Last Updated On: March 21, 2020)
The Laws of Thermodynamics

Lesson Objectives – the students should be able to:

  • Explain what is meant by a physical system and distinguish between an open system and a closed system.
  • State the first law of thermodynamics and use this law to solve problems.
  • Distinguish between an isothermal process, isobaric process, isochoric process and adiabatic process and draw a PV diagram for each process.
  • Calculate the work done by a gas from a PV diagram. Use the equations for an ideal gas and for the internal energy of a gas to calculate the change in internal energy of a gas and the heat added or removed during a thermodynamic process.
  • Calculate the amount of heat which must be added or removed to change the temperature of a gas held in a closed container under conditions of constant volume or constant pressure.
  • Write from memory and explain the meaning of three equivalent ways of stating the second law of thermodynamics.
  • Use the first and second laws of thermodynamics to solve problems involving a Carnot engine.
  • Distinguish between a reversible process and an irreversible process. Give examples of each type of process.
  • Determine the change in entropy for a system in which the thermodynamic process is either reversible or irreversible.
  • Distinguish between macrostate and microstate and solve problems involving the statistical interpretation of entropy.

Lecture on The Laws of Thermodynamics PPT

Back to Homepage

Summary of Chapter 15

  • First law of thermodynamics:
    First law of thermodynamics Formula
  • Isothermal process: temperature is constant.
  • Adiabatic process: no heat is exchanged.
  • Work done by gas at constant pressure:
    Work done by gas Formula
  • Heat engine changes heat into useful work; needs temperature difference.
  • Efficiency of a heat engine:
    Efficiency of a heat engine Formula
  • Upper limit on efficiency:
    Upper limit on efficiency Formula
  • Refrigerators and air conditioners do work to extract heat from a cooler region and send it to a warmer region:
    Refrigerators and air conditioners do work
  • A heat pump is similar:
    heat pump Formula
  • Second law of thermodynamics:
    • heat flows spontaneously from a hot object to a cold one, but not the reverse
    • a given amount of heat cannot be changed entirely to work
    • natural processes tend to increase entropy.
  • Change in entropy:
    Change in entropy Formula
  • Entropy is a measure of disorder.
  • As time goes on, less and less energy is available to do useful work.

Units of Chapter 15 – Keywords

  • The First Law of Thermodynamics
  • Thermodynamic Processes and the First Law
  • Human Metabolism and the First Law
  • The Second Law of Thermodynamics – Introduction
  • Heat Engines
  • Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps
  • Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
  • Order to Disorder
  • Unavailability of Energy; Heat Death
  • Evolution and Growth; “Time’s Arrow”
  • Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law
  • Thermal Pollution and Global Warming

Download Lecture Handout

credit: Giancoli Physics©2013 www.PinoyBIX.org

Print Friendly, PDF & Email
Please do Subscribe on YouTube!

P inoyBIX educates thousands of reviewers and students a day in preparation for their board examinations. Also provides professionals with materials for their lectures and practice exams. Help me go forward with the same spirit.

“Will you subscribe today via YOUTUBE?”


Add Comment

PinoyBIX Engineering. © 2014-2020 All Rights Reserved | How to Donate? | Follow me on Blogarama | Jabeetee Shop DMCA.com Protection Status