### Lesson Objectives – the students should be able to:

- Convert a temperature given in degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius and/or degrees Kelvin, and vice versa.
- State the factors that cause the volume of a solid or liquid to change or the length of a solid to change. Also, solve word problems and determine the final length or volume.
- Write the mathematical relationships that summarize Boyle’s law, Charles law, Gay Lussac’s law, and the ideal gas equation. Use these equations to solve word problems.
- State in your own words Avogadro’s hypothesis. State from memory the modern value of Avogadro’s number.
- State the postulates of the kinetic theory of gases.
- Rewrite the ideal gas equation in terms of motion of the molecules of an ideal gas.
- Explain what is meant by the term rms velocity.
- Explain what is meant by Van der Waal’s forces.
- Given a phase diagram for water, determine the range of temperature and pressure at which water is a solid, liquid, or gas. Describe what is meant by the triple point of water and point out the triple point on a phase diagram.
- Explain what is meant by sublimation and use a phase diagram to determine the range of temperatures and pressures for which the sublimation of water could occur.
- Explain why evaporation from a liquid is related to the temperature of the liquid and the average kinetic energy of the molecules of the liquid.
- Explain what is meant by vapor pressure and explain why vapor pressure is related to the temperature of the liquid and the boiling point of the liquid.
- Distinguish between relative humidity and absolute humidity and solve word problems related to relative humidity.
- Explain what is meant by diffusion and why diffusion is slower through a liquid than through a gas.
- Use Fick’s law to solve word problems related to gaseous diffusion.
- State Graham’s law of diffusion and use this law to determine the mass of a molecule of an unknown gas.

### Lecture on Temperature and Kinetic Theory PPT

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### Summary of Chapter 13

- All matter is made of atoms.
- Atomic and molecular masses are measured in atomic mass units, u.
- Temperature is a measure of how hot or cold something is, and is measured by thermometers.
- There are three temperature scales in use: Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Kelvin.
- When heated, a solid will get longer by a fraction given by the coefficient of linear expansion.
- The fractional change in volume of gases, liquids, and solids is given by the coefficient of volume expansion.
- Ideal gas law:
- One mole of a substance is the number of grams equal to the atomic or molecular mass.
- Each mole contains Avogadro’s number of atoms or molecules.
- The average kinetic energy of molecules in a gas is proportional to the temperature:
- Below the critical temperature, a gas can liquefy if the pressure is high enough.
- At the triple point, all three phases are in equilibrium.
- Evaporation occurs when the fastest moving molecules escape from the surface of a liquid.
- Saturated vapor pressure occurs when the two phases are in equilibrium.
- Relative humidity is the ratio of the actual vapor pressure to the saturated vapor pressure.
- Diffusion is the process whereby the concentration of a substance becomes uniform.

### Units of Chapter 13 – Keywords

- Atomic Theory of Matter
- Temperature and Thermometers
- Thermal Equilibrium and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
- Thermal Expansion
- Thermal Stress
- The Gas Laws and Absolute Temperature
- The Ideal Gas Law
- Problem Solving with the Ideal Gas Law
- Ideal Gas Law in Terms of Molecules: Avogadro’s Number
- Kinetic Theory and the Molecular Interpretation of Temperature
- Distribution of Molecular Speeds
- Real Gases and Changes of Phase
- Vapor Pressure and Humidity
- Diffusion
- Brownian motion
- Thermometers
- mole

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*credit: Giancoli Physics*

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