Lecture in Temperature and Kinetic Theory | Giancoli Physics

(Last Updated On: March 21, 2020)
Applied Physics Lecture: Temperature and Kinetic Theory

Lesson Objectives – the students should be able to:

  • Convert a temperature given in degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius and/or degrees Kelvin, and vice versa.
  • State the factors that cause the volume of a solid or liquid to change or the length of a solid to change. Also, solve word problems and determine the final length or volume.
  • Write the mathematical relationships that summarize Boyle’s law, Charles law, Gay Lussac’s law, and the ideal gas equation. Use these equations to solve word problems.
  • State in your own words Avogadro’s hypothesis. State from memory the modern value of Avogadro’s number.
  • State the postulates of the kinetic theory of gases.
  • Rewrite the ideal gas equation in terms of motion of the molecules of an ideal gas.
  • Explain what is meant by the term rms velocity.
  • Explain what is meant by Van der Waal’s forces.
  • Given a phase diagram for water, determine the range of temperature and pressure at which water is a solid, liquid, or gas. Describe what is meant by the triple point of water and point out the triple point on a phase diagram.
  • Explain what is meant by sublimation and use a phase diagram to determine the range of temperatures and pressures for which the sublimation of water could occur.
  • Explain why evaporation from a liquid is related to the temperature of the liquid and the average kinetic energy of the molecules of the liquid.
  • Explain what is meant by vapor pressure and explain why vapor pressure is related to the temperature of the liquid and the boiling point of the liquid.
  • Distinguish between relative humidity and absolute humidity and solve word problems related to relative humidity.
  • Explain what is meant by diffusion and why diffusion is slower through a liquid than through a gas.
  • Use Fick’s law to solve word problems related to gaseous diffusion.
  • State Graham’s law of diffusion and use this law to determine the mass of a molecule of an unknown gas.

Lecture on Temperature and Kinetic Theory PPT

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Summary of Chapter 13

  • All matter is made of atoms.
  • Atomic and molecular masses are measured in atomic mass units, u.
  • Temperature is a measure of how hot or cold something is, and is measured by thermometers.
  • There are three temperature scales in use: Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Kelvin.
  • When heated, a solid will get longer by a fraction given by the coefficient of linear expansion.
  • The fractional change in volume of gases, liquids, and solids is given by the coefficient of volume expansion.
  • Ideal gas law:
    Ideal gas law Formula
  • One mole of a substance is the number of grams equal to the atomic or molecular mass.
  • Each mole contains Avogadro’s number of atoms or molecules.
  • The average kinetic energy of molecules in a gas is proportional to the temperature:
    Ideal gas law Formula
  • Below the critical temperature, a gas can liquefy if the pressure is high enough.
  • At the triple point, all three phases are in equilibrium.
  • Evaporation occurs when the fastest moving molecules escape from the surface of a liquid.
  • Saturated vapor pressure occurs when the two phases are in equilibrium.
  • Relative humidity is the ratio of the actual vapor pressure to the saturated vapor pressure.
  • Diffusion is the process whereby the concentration of a substance becomes uniform.

Units of Chapter 13 – Keywords

  • Atomic Theory of Matter
  • Temperature and Thermometers
  • Thermal Equilibrium and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
  • Thermal Expansion
  • Thermal Stress
  • The Gas Laws and Absolute Temperature
  • The Ideal Gas Law
  • Problem Solving with the Ideal Gas Law
  • Ideal Gas Law in Terms of Molecules: Avogadro’s Number
  • Kinetic Theory and the Molecular Interpretation of Temperature
  • Distribution of Molecular Speeds
  • Real Gases and Changes of Phase
  • Vapor Pressure and Humidity
  • Diffusion
  • Brownian motion
  • Thermometers
  • mole

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