Lecture in Sound | Giancoli Physics

(Last Updated On: March 21, 2020)
Applied Physics Lecture: Sound

Lesson Objectives – the students should be able to:

  • Determine the speed of sound in air at one atmosphere of pressure at different temperatures.
  • Distinguish between the following terms: pitch, frequency, wavelength, sound intensity, loudness.
  • Determine intensity level in decibels of a sound if the intensity of the sound is given in W/m2.
  • Explain how a standing wave can be produced in a wind instrument open at both ends or closed at one end and calculate the frequencies produced by different harmonics of pipes of a given length.
  • Determine the beat frequency produced by two tuning forks of different frequencies.
  • Explain how an interference pattern can be produced by two sources of sound of the same wavelength separated by a distance d.
  • Solve problems involving two sources for m, d, λ, and the angular separation (θ) when the other quantities are given.
  • Solve for the frequency of the sound heard by a listener and the wavelength of the sound between a source and the listener when the frequency of the sound produced by the source and the velocity of both the source and the listener are given.
  • Explain how a shock wave can be produced and what is meant by the term “sonic boom.”

Lecture on Sound PPT

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Summary of Chapter 12

  • Sound is a longitudinal wave in a medium.
  • The pitch of the sound depends on the frequency.
  • The loudness of the sound depends on the intensity and also on the sensitivity of the ear.
  • The strings on stringed instruments produce a fundamental tone whose wavelength is twice the length of the string; there are also various harmonics present.
  • Wind instruments have a vibrating column of air when played. If the tube is open, the fundamental is twice its length; if it is closed the fundamental is four times the tube length.
  • Sound waves exhibit interference; if two sounds are at slightly different frequencies they produce beats.
  • The Doppler effect is the shift in frequency of a sound due to motion of the source or the observer.

Units of Chapter 12 – Keywords

  • Characteristics of Sound
  • Intensity of Sound: Decibels
  • The Ear and Its Response; Loudness
  • Sources of Sound: Vibrating Strings and Air Columns
  • Quality of Sound, and Noise; Superposition
  • Interference of Sound Waves; Beats
  • Doppler Effect
  • Shock Waves and the Sonic Boom
  • Applications: Sonar, Ultrasound, and Medical Imaging

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credit: Giancoli Physics©2013

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