Lecture in Fluids | Physics

(Last Updated On: March 21, 2020)
Applied Physics Lecture: Fluids

Lesson Objectives – the students should be able to:

  • Distinguish between density, weight density, and specific gravity and given an object’s mass and volume, calculate the object’s density, weight density, and specific gravity.
  • Define pressure and calculate the pressure that an object of known weight exerts on a surface of known area and express the magnitude of the pressure in psi, lb/ft2, N/m2, or pascals (Pa).
  • Calculate the pressure acting at a depth h below the surface of a liquid of density (ρ).
  • Distinguish between absolute pressure and gauge pressure and solve problems involving each type of pressure.
  • State Pascal’s Principle and apply this principle to basic hydraulic systems.
  • State Archimedes Principle and use this principle to solve problems related to buoyancy.
  • Explain what is meant by streamline flow, the equation of continuity, and the flow rate. Apply these concepts to word problems to solve for the velocity of water at a particular point in a closed pipe.
  • Use Bernoulli’s equation and the concept of streamline flow to solve for the velocity of a fluid and/or the pressure exerted by a fluid at a particular point in a closed pipe.

Lecture on Fluids PPT

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Summary of Chapter 10

  • Phases of matter: solid, liquid, gas.
  • Liquids and gases are called fluids.
  • Density is mass per unit volume.
  • Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of the material to that of water.
  • Pressure is force per unit area.
  • Pressure at a depth h is ρgh.
  • External pressure applied to a confined fluid is transmitted throughout the fluid.
  • Atmospheric pressure is measured with a barometer.
  • Gauge pressure is the total pressure minus the atmospheric pressure.
  • An object submerged partly or wholly in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.
  • Fluid flow can be laminar or turbulent.
  • The product of the cross-sectional area and the speed is constant for horizontal flow.
  • Where the velocity of a fluid is high, the pressure is low, and vice versa.
  • Viscosity is an internal frictional force within fluids.
  • Liquid surfaces hold together as if under tension.

Units of Chapter 10 – Keywords

  • Density and Specific GravityDensity and Specific Gravity
  • Density and Specific Gravity
  • Pressure in Fluids
  • Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure
  • Pascal’s Principle
  • Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the Barometer
  • Buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle
  • Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the Equation of Continuity
  • Bernoulli’s Equation
  • Applications of Bernoulli’s Principle: from Torricelli to Airplanes, Baseballs, and TIA
  • Viscosity
  • Flow in Tubes: Poiseuille’s Equation, Blood Flow
  • Surface Tension and Capillarity
  • Pumps, and the Heart

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credit: Giancoli Physics©2013

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