### Lesson Objectives – the students should be able to:

- Distinguish between density, weight density, and specific gravity and given an object’s mass and volume, calculate the object’s density, weight density, and specific gravity.
- Define pressure and calculate the pressure that an object of known weight exerts on a surface of known area and express the magnitude of the pressure in psi, lb/ft2, N/m2, or pascals (Pa).
- Calculate the pressure acting at a depth h below the surface of a liquid of density (ρ).
- Distinguish between absolute pressure and gauge pressure and solve problems involving each type of pressure.
- State Pascal’s Principle and apply this principle to basic hydraulic systems.
- State Archimedes Principle and use this principle to solve problems related to buoyancy.
- Explain what is meant by streamline flow, the equation of continuity, and the flow rate. Apply these concepts to word problems to solve for the velocity of water at a particular point in a closed pipe.
- Use Bernoulli’s equation and the concept of streamline flow to solve for the velocity of a fluid and/or the pressure exerted by a fluid at a particular point in a closed pipe.

### Lecture on Fluids PPT

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### Summary of Chapter 10

- Phases of matter: solid, liquid, gas.
- Liquids and gases are called fluids.
- Density is mass per unit volume.
- Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of the material to that of water.
- Pressure is force per unit area.
- Pressure at a depth h is ρgh.
- External pressure applied to a confined fluid is transmitted throughout the fluid.
- Atmospheric pressure is measured with a barometer.
- Gauge pressure is the total pressure minus the atmospheric pressure.
- An object submerged partly or wholly in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.
- Fluid flow can be laminar or turbulent.
- The product of the cross-sectional area and the speed is constant for horizontal flow.
- Where the velocity of a fluid is high, the pressure is low, and vice versa.
- Viscosity is an internal frictional force within fluids.
- Liquid surfaces hold together as if under tension.

### Units of Chapter 10 – Keywords

- Density and Specific GravityDensity and Specific Gravity
- Density and Specific Gravity
- Pressure in Fluids
- Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure
- Pascal’s Principle
- Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the Barometer
- Buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle
- Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the Equation of Continuity
- Bernoulli’s Equation
- Applications of Bernoulli’s Principle: from Torricelli to Airplanes, Baseballs, and TIA
- Viscosity
- Flow in Tubes: Poiseuille’s Equation, Blood Flow
- Surface Tension and Capillarity
- Pumps, and the Heart

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*credit: Giancoli Physics*

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