Chapter 19: Cellular Telephone Concepts – Tomasi Review

(Last Updated On: March 17, 2020)

Chapter 19: The Public Telephone Network

This is the summary notes of the important terms and concepts in Chapter 19 of the book "Electronic Communications System" by Wayne Tomasi. The notes are properly synchronized and concise for much better understanding of the book. Make sure to familiarize this review notes to increase the chance of passing the ECE Board Exam.


CHAPTER 19

CELLULAR TELEPHONE
CONCEPTS


Items

Definitions

Terms

1

The term for mobile telephone services which began in 1940s
and are sometimes called Manual telephone systems.

Mobile Telephone Manual System (MTSs)

2

The frequency used by MTSs.

35 MHz-45MHz

3

Switch that was used by MTS to activate the transceiver.

Push-to-Talk
(PTT)

4

It was introduced in 1964 which used several carrier
frequencies and could, therefore, handle several simultaneous mobile
conversations at the same time.

Improved Mobile Telephone System
(IMTS)

5

The term suggested any radio transmitter, receiver, or
transceiver that could be moved while operation.

Mobile

6

The term that described a relatively small radio unit that was
handled, battery powered, and easily carried by a person moving at walking
speed.

Portable

7

It is similar to two-way mobile radio in that most
communications occurs between base stations and mobile units.

Cellular Telephone

8

It operates on half duplex and use PTT transceivers.
Examples of two-way radio:
·        
Citizens
Band (CB)
·        
Public
land mobile radio

Two-Way Radio

9

A one to one system that permits two-way simultaneous
transmissions and operates the same way as the standard wire line telephone
service.

Mobile Telephone

10

Hinted of a cellular telephone scheme that he referred to as
simply a small-zone radio telephone system in the July 28, 1945.

E.K. Jett

11

On June 17, 1946, they introduced the first American
commercial mobile radio-telephone service to private customers.

AT&T and Southwestern Bell

12

A radio telephone service introduced by AT&T in 1947.

Highway Service.

13

Unveiled the most famous mobile telephone to date: the fully
mobile shoe phone in 1966 in a television show called Get Smart.

Don Adams

14

The year when FCC granted AT&T the first license to
operate a developmental cellular telephone service in Chicago.

1975

15

A satellite-based wireless personal communications satellite
(PCSS)

Iridium

16

Another term for cellular telephone.

Cellular Radio

17

A large geographic market area.

Coverage zone

18

It is employed to increase the capacity of a mobile telephone
channel.

Frequency Reuse

19

The shape that was used because it provides the most effective
transmission by approximating a circular pattern while eliminating the gaps
present between adjacent circles.

Honeycomb

20

Large cells that typically has 1 mile and 15 miles radius with
base station transmit power 1W and 6 W.

Macrocells

21

The smallest cells that typically has radius of 1500 feet or
less with base station transmit powers between 0.1 W and 1 W.

Microcells

22

The process in which the same set of frequencies can be
allocated to more than one cell, provided the cells are separated by
sufficient distance.

Frequency Reuse

23

A geographic cellular radio coverage area containing three
groups of cells.

cluster

24

Typically equal to 3,7, or 12.

Cluster size

25

The process of finding the tier with the nearest co-channel
cells.

First Tier

26

Two cells using the same set of frequencies.

Co-channel cells

27

The interference between the co-channels cells.
Adding radio channels to a system:
·        
Decreasing
the transmit power per cell
·        
making
cells smaller
·        
filling
vacated coverage areas with new cells

Co-channel Interference

28

The ratio of the cell radius and distance from the nearest
co-channel cell

The ratio of the cell radius and distance
from the nearest co-channel cell

29

Channel next to one another in the frequency domain.

Adjacent Channel

30

It results from imperfect filters in receivers that allow
nearby frequencies to enter the receiver.

Adjacent-Channel
Interference

31

Most prevalent when a mobile unit is receiving a weak signal
from the base station.

Near-Far Effect

32

The area of a cell, or independent component coverage areas of
cellular system is further subdivided thus creating more areas.

Cell Spliting

33

Occurs when number of the number of subscriber wishing to
place a call at any given time equals the number of channels in the cell.

Maximum Traffic Load

34

A condition occurs when a new call is initiated in an area
where all the channels are in use.

Blocking

35

Smaller areas when a single omnidirectional antenna is
replaced by several directional antennas, each radiating within smaller area.

Sectors

36

Using directional antennas.

Sectoring

37

Placing two receive antennas one above the other.

Space Diversity

38

A means of avoiding full-cell splitting where the entire area
would otherwise need to be segmented into smaller cells.

Dualization

39

A means of avoiding co-channel interference, although it
lowers the capacity of a cell by enabling reuse inside the reuse distance
which is normally prohibited.

Segmentation

40

The locations of radio-frequency transceivers. It serves are
central control for all users within that cell.

Base Stations

41

It handles all cell-site control and switching functions.

Cell-Site Controller

42

Occurs when a mobile unit moves from one cell to another
company’s service.

Roaming

43

It controls channel assignment, call processing, call setup
and call termination.
Different Names:
·        
Electric
Mobile Exchange (EMX)- Bell Lab.
·        
AEX-
Ericcson
·        
NEAX-NEC

·        
Switching
Mobile Center (SMC)
·        
Master
Mobile Center (MMC)-Novatel
·        
Mobile
Switching Center- PCS networks


Mobile Telephone Switching Office
(MTSO)

44

The transfer of a mobile unit from one base station’s control
to another base station’s control.
Four stages:
·        
Initiation

·        
Resource
reservation
·        
execution

·        
completion


Handoff (Handover)

45

A connection that is momentarily broken during the
cell-to-cell transfer. It is a break before-make process.

Hard Handoff

46

A flawless hand off with no perceivable interruption of
service.

Soft Handoff

47

It is used by computers that is based on variations in signal
strength and signal quality.

Handoff Decision

48

Either the mobile unit or the network determines the need for
a handoff and initiates the necessary network procedures.

Initiation

49

Appropriate network procedures reserve the resources needed to
support the handoff.

Resources Reservation

50

The actual transfer of control from one base station to
another base station takes place.

Execution

51

Execution Unnecessary network resources are relinquish and
made available to other mobile units.

Completion

52

Roaming from one company’s calling area into another company’s
calling area.

Interoperator Roaming

53

Stands for Electronics Industries
Association/Telecommunications Industry Association, developed the IS-41
Protocol.

EIA/TIA

54

It aligns with a subprotocol of the SS7 protocol stack that
facilitates communications among database other network entities.

IS-41

55

Stands for Cellular Telecommunication Industry Association.

CITA

56

The process where a mobile unit notifies a serving MTSO of its
presence and location through a base station controller.
Components of Cellular Telephone System:
·        
Electronic
switching center
·        
a
Cell-site controller
·        
radio
transceiver
·        
system
interconnections
·        
mobile
telephone units
·        
common
communications protocol

Autonomous Registration

57

A digital telephone exchange located in the MTSO that is the
heart of a cellular telephone system.

Electronic Switching Center

58

A datalink protocol at a transmission rate of 9.6 kbps.

X.25

59

Another name for cell-site controller.

Base Station Controller

60

It manages each of the radio channels at each site supervises
calls, turns the radio transmitter and receiver on and off, injects data onto
the control and voice channels, and performs diagnostic tests in the
cell-site equipment.

Cell-site Controller

61

Stands for Base transceiver station.

BTS

62

A part of base station subsystem that can be either narrowband
FM analog system or either PSK or QAM for digital systems with effective
audio frequency.

Radio Transceiver

63

The radio receiver that detects the strongest signal.

Receiver Diversity

64

It governs the way telephone calls are established and
disconnected.
Examples of Protocol:
·        
IS-54

·        
IS-136.2

·        
IS-95


Communications Protocol

65

The actual voice channel where mobile users communicate
directly with either mobile or wireline subscribers through a base station.

User Channel

66

It is used for transferring control and diagnostic information
between mobile users and a central cellular telephone switch through a base
station.
Transmit on base station:
·        
forward
control channel
·        
forward
voice channel
Receive on base stations:
·        
reverse
control channel
·        
reverse
voice channel
Types of calls:
·        
Mobile
to wireline
·        
mobile
to mobile
·        
wireline
to mobile

Control Channel

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