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# Chapter 2: Signal Analysis and Mixing – Tomasi Review

This is the summary notes of the important terms and concepts in Chapter 2 of the book "Electronic Communications System" by Wayne Tomasi. The notes are properly synchronized and concise for much better understanding of the book. Make sure to familiarize this review notes to increase the chance of passing the ECE Board Exam.

 CHAPTER 2 SIGNAL ANALYSIS AND MIXING

 Items Definitions Terms 1 Electrical signals of which amplitude changes continuously with respect to time with no breaks or discontinuities. Analog Signals 2 Electrical signals that are described as discrete; their amplitude maintains constant level for a prescribed period of time and then it changes to another level with respect to time with no breaks or discontinuities. Digital Signals 3 Digital signal with only two levels possible. Binary Signal 4 Digital signal with four levels possible. Quaternary Signal 5 Is the mathematical analysis of the frequency, bandwidth, and voltage level of a signal? Signal Analysis 6 A signal that repeats at a uniform rate. Periodic Wave 7 A description of signal with respect to time. Time-domain Representation 8 A time-domain instrument that shows signal waveforms. Oscilloscope 9 The display on the cathode ray tube (CRT) that shows the shape and instantaneous magnitude of the signal with respect to time. Signal Waveform 10 A description of signal with respect to its frequency. Frequency Domain Representation 11 A frequency-domain instrument that shows amplitude-versus-frequency plot. Spectrum Analyzer 12 Any repetitive wave that is comprised of more than one harmonically related sine or cosine wave. Nonsinusoidal / Complex Wave 13 A mathematical series developed in 1826 by French physicist and mathematician Baron Jean Fourier used to analyze complex periodic wave. Fourier Series 14 A mathematical tool that allows us to move back and forth between the time and frequency domains. It is used in signal analysis to represent the sinusoidal components of nonsinusoidal periodic waveforms. Fourier Series 15 Waveform comprised of an average dc component and a series of harmonically related sine or cosine wave. Periodic Waveform 16 Is the integral multiple of the fundamental frequency? Harmonic 17 Is the first harmonic and is equal to the frequency (repetition rate) of the waveform. Fundamental Frequency 18 If a periodic voltage waveform is symmetric about the vertical axis, it is said to have axes, or mirror, symmetry and is called an ________. even function 19 If a periodic voltage waveform is symmetric about a line midway between the vertical axis and the negative horizontal axis and passing through the coordinate origin, it is said to have point, or skew, symmetry is called an ______. odd function 20 If a periodic voltage waveform is such that the waveform for the first half cycle repeats itself except with the opposite sign for the second half cycle, it is said to have ________. half-wave symmetry 21 The ________ of a waveform consists of all the frequencies contained in the waveform and their respective amplitudes plotted in the frequency domain. frequency spectrum 22 The difference between the highest and lowest frequencies contained in the information. It is also the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies that the channel will allow to pass through it. Bandwidth of an information signal 23 The ratio of the active time of the pulse to the period of the waveform. Duty Cycle 24 The rate at which energy is dissipated, delivered, or used, and is a function of the square of the voltage or current Electrical Power 25 A fourier transform where a time-domain signal is sampled at discrete times. Discrete Fourier Transform 26 A new algorithm of fourier transform developed by Cooley and Tukey in 1965 where the computing time is proportional to n log 2n rather than n2. Fast Fourier Transform 27 The process of combining two or more signals Mixing 28 Occurs when two or more signals combine in a linear device, such as a passive network or a small-signal amplifier. Also called linear mixing. Linear Summing 29 An amplifier where the output is simply the original input signal amplified by its gain. Linear Amplifier 30 Occurs when two or more signals are combined in a nonlinear device such as a diode or large-signal amplifier. Nonlinear Mixing 31 Undesired generation of multiples or harmonics of that frequency. Harmonic Distortion 32 Desired generation of multiples or harmonics of that frequency. Frequency Multiplication 33 The sum and difference of the two original frequencies. Cross Products 34 The generation of any unwanted cross-product frequency when two or more frequencies are mixed in a nonlinear device. Intermodulation Distortion 35 Desired cross products produced by mixing in a nonlinear device. Modulation

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