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# Forouzan: MCQ in SONET / SDH

This is the MCQ in Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) / Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) from the book Data Communications and Networking by Behrouz A. Forouzan. If you are looking for a reviewer in datacom, topic in Electronics Systems and Technologies (Communications Engineering) this will definitely help you before taking the Board Exam.The topic discuss the Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) which is a standard developed by ANSI for fiber-optic networks while the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) is a similar standard developed by ITU-T. If you skip the summary and important terminology visit SONET/SDH .
Watch Audio MCQ in SONET / SDH

#### Practice Exam Test Questions

Choose the letter of the best answer in each questions.

1. In SONET each frame lasts _______ microseconds.

A)ย ย  20

B)ย ย  64

C)ย ย  125

D)ย ย  none of the above

Solution:

2. A linear SONET network can be __________.

A)ย ย  multipoint

B)ย ย  point-to-point

C)ย ย  either (a) or (b)

D)ย ย  neither (a) nor (b)

Solution:

3. The path overhead consists of ______ bytes.

A)ย ย  18

B)ย ย  9

C)ย ย  6

D)ย ย  1

Solution:

4. _______ is a standard developed by ITU-T.

A)ย ย  SONET

B)ย ย  SDH

C)ย ย  either (a) or (b)

D)ย ย  neither (a) nor (b)

Solution:

5. A ______ is the portion of the network between two multiplexers.

A)ย ย  line

B)ย ย  path

C)ย ย  section

D)ย ย  none of the above

Solution:

6. A ________ is a repeater.

B)ย ย  regenerator

C)ย ย  STS multiplexer/demultiplexer

D)ย ย  none of the above

Solution:

7. The ______ layer is responsible for the movement of a signal across a physical section.

A)ย ย  path

B)ย ย  section

C)ย ย  photonic

D)ย ย  line

Solution:

8. In ______ APS, there is one working line and one protection line. The data are normally sent on the working line until it fails.

A)ย ย  one-to-one

B)ย ย  one-plus-one

C)ย ย  one-to-many

D)ย ย  none of the above

Solution:

9. Line overhead consists of ________ bytes.

A)ย ย  18

B)ย ย  9

C)ย ย  6

D)ย ย  1

Solution:

10. In SONET, for each frame, the bytes are transmitted __________.

A)ย ย  from left to the right, bottom to top

B)ย ย  from left to the right, top to bottom

C)ย ย  from right to the left, top to bottom

D)ย ย  from right to the left, bottom to top

Solution:

11. Each ________in a SONET frame can carry a digitized voice channel.

A)ย ย  frame

B)ย ย  bit

C)ย ย  byte

D)ย ย  none of the above

Solution:

12. An STS-1 frame is made ______columns.

A)ย ย  90

B)ย ย  9

C)ย ย  1

D)ย ย  none of the above

Solution:

13. The ______ layer is responsible for the movement of a signal from its optical source to its optical destination.

A)ย ย  line

B)ย ย  path

C)ย ย  photonic

D)ย ย  section

Solution:

14. The ____ layer is responsible for the movement of a signal across a physical line.

A)ย ย  line

B)ย ย  path

C)ย ย  photonic

D)ย ย  section

Solution:

15. An STS multiplexer is a ______ device.

A)ย ย  four-layer

B)ย ย  three-layer

C)ย ย  two-layer

D)ย ย  one-layer

Solution:

16. A ring SONET network can be _________.

A)ย ย  bidirectional

B)ย ย  unidirectional

C)ย ย  either (a) or (b)

D)ย ย  neither (a) nor (b)

Solution:

17. _______ is a standard developed by ANSI for fiber-optic networks.

A)ย ย  SDH

B)ย ย  SONET

C)ย ย  either (a) or (b)

D)ย ย  neither (a) nor (b)

Solution:

18. An add/drop multiplexer is a ______ device.

A)ย ย  four-layer

B)ย ย  three-layer

C)ย ย  two-layer

D)ย ย  one-layer

Solution:

19. In SONET, for each byte, the bits are transmitted ____________.

A)ย ย  from most significant to the least significant

B)ย ย  from least significant to the most significant

C)ย ย  three at a time

D)ย ย  two at a time

Solution:

20. A _______ is the optical link connecting two neighbor devices.

A)ย ย  path

B)ย ย  line

C)ย ย  section

D)ย ย  none of the above

Solution:

21. A ______is the end-to-end portion of the network between two STS multiplexers.

A)ย ย  line

B)ย ย  path

C)ย ย  section

D)ย ย  none of the above

Solution:

22. The _______ layer corresponds to the physical layer of the OSI model.

A)ย ย  photonic

B)ย ย  path

C)ย ย  line

D)ย ย  section

Solution:

23. SONET is a _______ TDM system.

A)ย ย  statistical

B)ย ย  asynchronous

C)ย ย  synchronous

D)ย ย  none of the above

Solution:

24. An STS-3 frame is made of ______ rows.

A)ย ย  27

B)ย ย  9

C)ย ย  1

D)ย ย  none of the above

Solution:

25. SONET defines _______ layers.

A)ย ย  five

B)ย ย  four

C)ย ย  three

D)ย ย  two

Solution:

26. In ________ APS, there are normally two lines: one working line and one protection line. Both lines are active all the time.

A)ย ย  one-to-one

B)ย ย  one-to-many

C)ย ย  one-plus-one

D)ย ย  none of the above

Solution:

27. __________ allow insertion and extraction of signals.

A)ย ย  STS multiplexer/demultiplexers

B)ย ย  regenerators

D)ย ย  none of the above

Solution:

28. An STS-3 frame is made of ________ columns.

A)ย ย  270

B)ย ย  90

C)ย ย  9

D)ย ย  none of the above

Solution:

29. SONET has defined a hierarchy of signals called ________.

A)ย ย  STMs

B)ย ย  STSs

C)ย ย  either (a) or (b)

D)ย ย  neither (a) nor (b)

Solution:

30. An ______ signal is the optical modulation of an STS-n (or STM-n) signal.

A)ย ย  FDM-n

B)ย ย  OC-n

C)ย ย  TDM-n

D)ย ย  none of the above

Solution:

31. A regenerator is a ________ device.

A)ย ย  three-layer

B)ย ย  one-layer

C)ย ย  two-layer

D)ย ย  four-layer

Solution:

32. An STS-1 frame is made of ________ rows

A)ย ย  90

B)ย ย  9

C)ย ย  1

D)ย ย  none of the above

Solution:

33. SDH has defined a hierarchy of signals called ________.

A)ย ย  STMs

B)ย ย  STSs

C)ย ย  either (a) or (b)

D)ย ย  neither (a) nor (b)

Solution:

34. To make SONET backward-compatible with the current hierarchy, its frame design includes a system of ____.

A)ย ย  VTs

B)ย ย  STSs

C)ย ย  STMs

D)ย ย  OCs

Solution:

35. SONET network topologies can be __________.

A)ย ย  ring

B)ย ย  mesh

C)ย ย  linear

D)ย ย  all of the above

Solution:

36. SONET sends ________ frames per second.

A)ย ย  8000

B)ย ย  4000

C)ย ย  2000

D)ย ย  1000

Solution:

37. A SONET system can use _________.

A)ย ย  regenerators

C)ย ย  STS multiplexers

D)ย ย  all of the above

Solution:

38. In ________APS, there is only one protection line for many working lines. When a failure occurs in one of the working lines, the protection line takes control until the failed line is repaired.

A)ย ย  one-to-one

B)ย ย  one-plus-one

C)ย ย  one-to-many

D)ย ย  none of the above

Solution:

39. The section overhead consists of ______octets.

A)ย ย  18

B)ย ย  9

C)ย ย  6

D)ย ย  1

Solution:

### MCQ in SONET - SDH (pdf)

MCQ in SONET - SDH (pdf)

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