Electronics Engineering Coaching Materials: Section 5 Module 2

(Last Updated On: March 30, 2018)Electronics Coaching Materials: Section 5 Module 2

This is the Section 5 Module 2 of the compiled Electronics Coaching Materials taken from different sources including but not limited to Electronics books, past Board Exams Questions, Journals and other Electronics References. This particular Coaching Notes in Electronics Engineering has random Questions and Answers in random topics. Make sure to familiarize each questions to increase the chance of passing the ECE Board Exam.

Electronics Engineering Coaching: Section 5 Module 1


Abundance ratio– ratio of one no. of atoms of one isotope

Gimmick capacitance- smallest capacitance formed when twisting a insulated wire

Gratz Rectifier- 3phase, 6 elements

Persistor- superconducting thin film

Triatron – neutral logic

Fuzzy logic – totally false, to neutral to totally true

Optical _____- array of optocoupler w/c is controlled by rotating wheel

LED and phototransistor – optocoupler or optoisolator

Thermal Junction – limits of one current in junction diode

Input impedance of an op-amp – very high

Wire wound resistor – used to dissipate power in DC

Hot wire ammeter – can be used in AC or DC

400 Hz – inductor is toroidal

95 MHz inductor is air core

Induction with air – high affectivity


0.5 µm – thickness of unbiased pn junction

Common base – high output circuit

CC – cant have voltage gain exceeds unity

Class A – IE flows all the time

– 50% efficiency when transformer coupled

– Worst scenario when zero input voltage

Class B – is more free from even order harmonic distortion

Transputer – computer on a chip, 32 bits, parallel processing

Handshake – solution to problems connecting asynchronous to synchronous

Advantage of compiler to interpreter – store and reuse information

Anthromorphic robot – most maneuverable

Helical gear – less backlash

Gantry robot – good positioning precision

Bet. 5 – 100 – voice coils

Large computers uses 64


Cell resistance in photoconductive cell is inversely proportional with intensity of incident light

Solar cell – high efficiency and unlimited life

When holes and electrons recombine – LED emits visible light

Light energy switch on – phototransistor is same with transistor

High temp. and current capacity – silicon diode is used

IMPATT – microwave device use as oscillator with freq. 10-1000GHz

PIN – negative resistance microwave diode

Varactor – voltage variable capacitor

Gold doping- reduces storage time

Zener – used in breakdown/ regulator

Avalanche photodiode vs. PIN – avalanche has greater speed of operation

Ripple factor – the measure of filter efficiency

FW utilizes both half cycle of the input

The larger the shunt capacitor- the larger the peak current

Transconductance – high input; low output

Breakdown of MOSFET – is mostly bec. Of very low gate capacitance and high input resistance

High input impedance – on mosfet because of very low leakage current in gate capacitor


Punch Through effect – breakdown occurs

Delay time – time bet. Application of input to

Roll – off – decreases voltage gain with frequency network – fc n mababa

Ideality factor

Damping ratio

Linear waveshaping

Amplifier stabilization circuit


Thermal operation – produce pair of electron and hole

Migration – depletion in pn junction

Current drift

Ideality factor and Emission Coefficient

Megger – high resistance

Bravais Lattice

0.1% – crystal oscillator frequency

10% to 20% – replacement working voltage

Maxwell Bridge – find L, known C

Wheatstone bridge – resistance; 1Ω to few Megaohms

Selsyn – points to the orientation

Schmitt trigger – use only for comparator

0.05%-0.2% – efficiency for Kelvin’s double bridge

KOH – alkaline cell electrode

108.8% – pure silver

72.6% – conductivity of 99.9% gold

63% – conductivity of aluminum

Fuel battery – discovered by FT Bacon in 1959

Microcontroller – stand alone

Actuating signal

Wien bridge – measure inductance through unknown capacitance

Microprocessor – by Tedd Hoff

2 to 3 µm – distance of components in a standard or practical IC

1 µm – distance of components in a advance IC

3 to 8 inches silicon wafer

Die casting- hot done

660V – solid grounding

Damping factor – filter response ckt

Offset = threshold = firing potential

Gap length, flux density – EMF induced in a coil

Zinc container – cathode


3 phase alternator – equal

Nicad’s advantage over lead acid = cells can be replaced

Zinc and copper – good electrode

Chromium – Body centered cubic

Zinc – hexagonal close packed

0.74 –bpacking factor for face centered

Cycloconverter – converts frequency


Thermocouple – meter movement

DC Gen – reverse of DC motor; mech to elec

Linear taper potentiometer – meter sensitivity test

Logarithmic taper potentiometer – volume control

Step input – sudden change in the input


Single pip

Ramp input

Speed – affected by frequency

Turn on voltage/ cut in voltage

Drift velocity

Hole current

Weston saturated cell

CPU – converts input signal into useful information

ALU – manipulator data

Multivibrator – use for nonsinusoidal wave

Negative amplifier – with feedback

Command input – output is independent with it






Range – maximum and minimum

Ferranti effect – end voltage


Degrees of freedom – 3

Manipulator – causes or allows the relation of

XOR – odd parity checker

MICA – small size

Electrostatic unit

Electrolytic cell – polarized cell

Ceramic – 100pF

MOSFET – high input impedance

Internal resistance current source – zero

Dynamic resistance – AC

Transformer coupling – commonly used coupling

Flywheel effect

Ring ckt – RLC

Permanent magnet

Adv. Of toroid over solenoid – field concentrated

ARC wielding

Pressure welding – cold

SMAW – shielded metal arc welding

Lightning arrester, grounding wires

Galvanized steel – grounding wires

Copper loss

Corona – if wires are bundled

Impedance relay – medium transmission

Short transmission lines – shunt admittance / shunt reactance (negligible)

Stray loss- not transformer loss

Lag – measuring lag – the retardation or delay of response in a system

Charging current is leading the voltage by 90 degrees

130 °C – class C motor

155 °C – Class F motor

Parabolic input – varies with the square

Adv of rheostat over potentiometer – handle excess current

Triode – simplest tube

Lithium cells – 5 to 10 years storage life

Transistor outline package – first

Common collector – highest input impedance

Plate current

Control grid

Compton camera

Vision system – robots

Peak amplitude – vector diagram, distance

Phase difference

Residual magnetism

Gauss theorem

Line regulation – constant voltage to the load

Uninterrupted power supply

Unified amu – 1/avogadros’ number

Quantum theory

Isotopes – neutrons

Avalanche effect – produced when electrons collide

1.6V – threshold voltage of LED

Blue – ground in cables

Advantage of PCB – chassis

Film ICs – passive components as resistors and capacitors

NMOS – 6 times slower than PMOS

Silicon – N-type – Antimony

Point contact – 1st transistor

Working function – remove electrons

Clap – example of Colpitts

Advantage of FW to HW – full rectification

Ohmmeter – meter with source

Buffer amplifier – unity gain

Universal motor – both Ac and DC

Primary storage – memory

RAM – memory in array

Thermopile – thermocouple in array

CMRR in dB – 40 to 80 dB

CMRR – 100 to 10000

Integrator – capacitance (FB)

Differentiator – capacitance (input)

Half wave doubler – has 2 diodes

Carbon – not used to make magnets

IEEE 488 interface


72 – p-shell

Hole – + charge

Single phase motor – not self starting

Bluetooth – about 1/5 WiFi

Bleeder resistor – connected across the capacitor

Protection against electric shock – lightning arrester and grounding

Bode plot – logarithm on frequency

Frenckel defect – wrong position of the electron

When light strikes – resistance increases, conductance decreases

Semiconductor – has negative temperature coefficient

Photoconductive cells –a.k.a. photoresistors or phototransistors

Early effect – a.k.a. as base width modulation

In a rectangular wave :

V and I associated with resistance – horizontal

V and I associated with reactance – vertical

Daisy chaining – term used to determine the interrupt priorities of a microcomputer

Adv. Of CMOS family over TTL family – much reduced power

Rectangular coordinate system – for displaying resistive, inductive, capacitive components of an impedance

Polar coordinates system – for visual representation of phase angle

Nickel cadmium – nickel hydroxide, powdered iron and its oxides and 21% solution

Dead short circuit – most dangerous short circuit

Fermi dirac energy distribution- is a distribution function w/c explains the distribution of energies among different electrons with in a crystal at a given temperature

Biased diode- diode used to maintain stability

Electron ballistic – used for measuring trajectories

De sautry bridge – most useful bridge in comparing capacitances of air capacitor

2nd, 4th, 6th – harmonics in a 3 phase system

GaAS – LED infrared region

In LED, light is emitted in the recombination of light carriers

The smallest value in the in the four h parameters – ho

1 nibble – 2bytes

1 nybble – 4 bits

Lightmeter – an instrument w/c used lux as unit of measurement

Watt meter – records the electrical energy consumed

Ondograph – an instrument w/c records the wave shape of voltage and current

Thermal resistor – used to measure temperature change

Thermal neutron – aka slow neutron

Nickel cadmium – battery/cell w/c should not be used until it dies out

Ic = ßIa + (ß+1) ICBO

IE = (IC – ICEO)/ά

IE = (IC/ά)

ICEO = (ß+1) ICBO

ICQ = (ß+1)ICBO

Complete List of Electronics Engineering Coaching Materials

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